SYSU 2021 PhD backup



always, probable, possible, sometimes, hardly ever, rare, never


  1. What is known?
  2. What is unknow?
  3. Why we did this study?
  • Briefly review the literature related to your work
  • Describe the hypothesis that prompted your investigation
  • State the purpose of your study
    Use "however" to indicate there is a area or aspect that needs to be addressed. --用于表达sth.是有限的


  • The heart of the paper. ❤
  • No need to follow chronology of study.
  • Provide only enough interpretation to lead reader from one experiment to the next.
  • Avoid duplication of information between text, figures, legends and tables, and be consistent. (不要互相重复), 图表需要具有自明性


  1. A good figure should be self-explained.


  • Briefly state main data and findings
  • Analyze the significance of results and compare with works from others
  • Avoide redundancy with results section
  • Avoid too much speculations and hupotheses
  1. Outline the strengths and limitations of your work (protect yourself)
  2. To address "So what?" and "Where now", indication future studies are necessary

Basic points

  • Back to basics
    • Carefully consider issues of sentence and paragraph constructions, run-on sentences
    • Dont use five words when one will do
  • Avoid redundancy
  • Read other's papers that have similarity to your research project
  • Be logic


Prepare a short presentation to last five mins, the subject matter is about something that you have a deep interest in or about which you hold a strong conviction.
Awnswer of Dingding: alabala.....🤡


  1. Find an abstract of a research paper, and analyze its structure, contents and stock phrases.
  2. Watch watch TED speaking.
  3. "下次课我讲一节,然后每个组出一个代表展示。题目是 Research oriented learning and its guidance in my future research career."

Assignment result by Mr.Zhuang👍



tenure-tract (终身合约), Occame's Razor, Acronym ˈækrənɪm, Abbreviation(缩短,但不是首字母), cultivate培育培养, cyber carfe(网吧)

Major reasons for rejection

  1. Confirmatory (not novel)
  2. Poor experimental design
    • Poor controls
    • Hypothesis not adequately tested
  3. Inappopriate for journal
  4. Poorly written['rɪtn]


  1. Know the journal, its editors, and why you submitted the paper there.
  2. Pay close attention to spelling, grammar, and punctuation.
  3. Make sure references are comprehensive and accurate.
  4. Avoid careless mistakes.
  5. Read and conform to "Instrcution for authors".


  1. Data manipulation, falsification
  2. Duplicate manuscripts (一稿多发)
  3. Redundant publication
  4. Plagiarism
  5. Author conflicts of interest

Impact factor

Average number of times published papers are cited up to two years after publication.

Immediacy Index

The first year.

Things to consider before writing

1. Time to write the paper?

- has a significant advancement been made?
- is the hypothesis straightforward?
- did the experiments test the hypothesis?
- can you describe the study in 1 or 2 minutes?
- can the key message be written in 1 or 2 sentences?

2. Tables and figures

3. Read references

4. Choose journal

- study "instructions to authors"
- think about possible reviewers
- quality of journal "impact factor"

5. Title, summary, authorship

Write in what order?

Abstract in the final.


  1. Relevant and recent
  2. Be highly selective
  3. Read the references
  4. Do not misquote
  5. Use correct style for journal


  1. Critical part of paper.
  2. State main objective
  3. Summarize most important results
  4. State major conclusions and significance
  5. Avoid acronyms
  6. Writen and re-write.


  1. Will determine whether paper gets read
  2. Avoid long title

Words and expressions to avoid

Just look at this "clear" picture😅

nihao asd
asd asd


  1. Read instruction for authors, find two journal in your own scientific area.



prerequisite, discipline(学科,纪律), specimen(样本),

How to write and publish SCI cited papers? An overview

SCI: stands for Science Citation Index

How to do?

  1. Apply for grants, ie., get money to do research, very important!!!
  2. The choice of an appropriate project: central to the successful completion of courses(degrees), also the prerequisite for publishing SCI papers.
  3. Design your project carefully with supervision from your supervisor(s)
  5. Be prepared to work the hardest and also smartly
  6. Learn to be co-operative with staff and your colleagues.
  7. Be prepared and learn to conduct experiments economically
  8. Gets your results published as soon as possible internationlly and nationally, and publish as many papers as you can.

How to write?

  1. Be prepared to spend at least three more fold times
  2. Improve your English (general and professional) proficiency
  3. Be familiar with the general requirements and format of English articles
  4. Decide which magazine to submit
  5. Draft your manuscript following the journal requirements strictly
  6. Revise and "polish" your draft MS with input from all co-authors
  7. Get figures and tables ready
  8. Get the format and references correst
    Practice makes perfect !

短视频观看: How to Write a Literature Review



Pyramid[ˈpɪrəmɪd], unambiguously[æmˈbɪɡjuəs], abrogating, perpetuated, Sabbath, obligations,

Is war between China and the US inevitable?
What is research integrity?
Howard Schachman (UC Berkeley): Misconduct in Science


翻译:After the resurrection of Christ, instead of abrogating an old and introducing a new institution, God, through his inspired agents, perpetuated the Sabbath, re-imposing it upon Christians with increased obligations, and by changing the day from the seventh to the first day of the week enriched it with new and higher significance.
This statement of the historical faith of the whole Church contradicts the following false views of small and transient parties:



waysidem, ascend, affection(感情,慈爱), proverb(谚语), in spite of(尽管), rumor(谣言), slander(诽谤), sever(断绝), discharge(释放), woe(悲哀,灾祸), irrespective(不管), waver(动摇), conviction(定罪,信念信仰), conduct(conductor, conductivity, 进行,举办,引导,传导), seniors(高年级的学生), jasmine(茉莉花,淡黄色), proctor(国外的宿监), sophomore(大二), perseverance(坚韧不拔), uphill(上坡), ivy(常青藤), countenance(面容), diffident(羞怯的), debut[deɪˈbjuː], displacement(取代,免职,排水量), by means of(通过...), transverse(横向的), luminiferous(发光的), rejuvenate, headway(进展, 净空高度), industry, factory..



  1. 使用大量名次化的语言
  2. 广泛使用被动句: Attention must be paid to the working temperature.
  3. 避免使用人称主语,like "we"。主语尽量不同,避免重复
  4. 逗号,后面需要现在分词独立结构做状语,修饰前句(Vibrating objects produce sound waves, each vibration producing one sound wave.)
    It was not until the 19th century that heat was considered as a form of energy.
    It seems that these two branches of science are mutually dependent and interacting.
  5. 长句.



contention论点, lethal 致命的, eulogy 赞颂,euthanasia 安乐死, humane人性化, euphemism[ˈjuːfəmɪzəm] 委婉说法,accusation控告, endorses支持, be contrary to 有悖于, In what follows(以下), withhold(拒绝), congenital defects(先天缺陷),

In what follows I will set out some of the relevant arguments, and urge doctors to reconsider their views on this matter.
To say otherwise(与上面说的情况相反) is to endorse the option that leads to more suffering rather than less, and is contrary to the humanitarian impulse that prompts the decision not to prolong his life in the first place.
Some one wise, some are otherwise. 有些人聪明,有些人不聪明

每日一小视频: 地球公民

shift+a ---从行末键入
shift+i ---从行首键入



buzz word 网络热词, biopharmaceuticals生物医药, possess 拥有带来, understatement轻描淡写,有保留的陈述(antonym-> overstatement), unleash ... power to(释放什么的能力), splice剪、接, Soon followed were接踵而来, elevate to a new level升级到新的水平, genetically modified organisms转基因, holds tremendous promise for对...有巨大的前景, the list goes on...不胜枚举, dystrophy营养不良, anemia贫血, propelled刺激、促进, an unprecedented fashion史无前例的, bovine牛科的, fetus婴儿的, caution and humility敬畏之心, regarding关于..至于, gut reaction本能反应, commencement ceremony毕业典礼(美国), corridor走廊, advent到来

Even more controversial are many ethical issues.
... that are considered socially undesirable and morally wrong.
The debate over ethical, legal and social implications of genetic engineering should help formulating and optimizing public policy and laws regarding the technology.


  1. JK Rowling的视频精听(take script)
  2. 自己想象一个场景,准备一个演讲稿



ovum卵子, perilous危险的、冒险的, Director-General总干事, totalitarian极权主义着, far outrun远远超过, Benefits outweigh the disadvantages(利大于弊), secular世俗的, fossilization石化

But some scientists and much of the public were troubled or apparently even horrified at the prospect that if adult mammals such as sheep could be cloned, then cloning of adult humans by the same process would likely be possible as well.

The response of most scientific and political leaders to the prospect of human cloning, indeed of Dr. Wilmut as well, was of immediate and strong condemnation.

Around the world similar immediate condemnation was heard, as human cloning was called a violation of human rights and human dignity.



dragon西方龙, descendant of Loong龙的传人(中国🐲), controdiction矛盾, fossil record化石记录, legacy遗留的,计算机旧系统, heritage历史文化遗产, elasticity弹性, resilience韧性弹性, etiquette礼节礼仪, intimate亲密的、暗示{verb}, telecommunication fraud电信诈骗,



emigrate出去移民, immigrate进入移民, onerous沉重的, spectacularly引人入胜地, encumber妨碍, capricious变化无常地,任性地, mystifies使困惑, tuberculosis结核病, ministrations帮助, etiology病因学, contagious传染性的, afflict使苦恼;折磨, malevolency恶意;狠毒, malady疾病;不治之症, malignancy恶性;[病理]恶性肿瘤, plastered醉醺醺的, plaster涂以灰泥;敷以膏药, pejorative贬低的;轻蔑的, predator捕食者, de-mythicize去神话化, reluctant不情愿的, Verbally口头上, evasive逃避的;难以捉摸的;闪烁其词的,

be tantamount to等同于,
I dedicate this inquiry我做了此项调查



accountability法律效应的责任, advocate倡导;提倡;主张, reflexive反射性的;反身的, lineage后裔, foster awareness培养意识, oversight审查;监管, dissemination传播;宣传, extraneous外来的;无关的,

few and far between寥寥无几的